Limnoperna supoti Brandt, Modiola cambodgensis Clessin, Modiola lacustris Martens, Volsella fortunei Dunker, Taxonomic Notes. Limnoperna fortunei (or golden mussel) is an epifaunal mytilid, native to Chinese and south-eastern Asian rivers and creeks. It became. Limnoperna depressa Brandt & Temcharoen, Subspecies Limnoperna fortunei kikuchii Habe, accepted as Xenostrobus securis.

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It became established in Hong Kong in and in Japan and Taiwan in the s. Init invaded America throu It has several invasive characteristics such as gregariousness, rapid growth, short life span; it has a planktonic larval stage, and great adaptive and reproductive capacity.

It modifies the presence and abundance of native macro invertebrate fauna, fish diets, and their high fortuni rates cause environmental impact, changing ecological conditions in the areas colonized. It causes great economic damage to water intakes and cooling systems. Taxonomic Tree Top of page Domain: Limnoperna fortunei Fkrtunei on Taxonomy and Nomenclature Top of page The generic name Limnoperna Rochebrune was erected to distinguish this monotypic genus from the other mytilids.

L imnoperna fortunei has been cited under a variety of names Morton, forutnei Ricciardi, One species and its subspecies of the genus Limnoperna was recognized from Japan: L imnoperna fortunei fortunei Dunker, and L imnoperna fortunei kikuchii Habe, Habe, The shells of adult L. It is dark-brown above the umbonal keel and paler yellow-brown below.

This is caused by the nacre of the interior of the shell being purple above and white below the keel. The presence of a nacreous layer in L. The outer periostracal layer of the shell is smooth and shiny, and thick where it curls inwards at the shell margin. ,imnoperna

WoRMS – World Register of Marine Species – Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, )

The umbones are very nearly terminal and the dorsal ligamental margin is straight or, at most, only slightly curved. The ventral margin of the shell is the most variable feature and in different specimens varied between the two extremes of being either straight or distinctly arcuate. There are no hinge teeth or byssal notches.

The shells are yellow-brown. Its longevity is variable. In the natural environment of Bagliardi Beach, Argentina, longevity was recorded as 3.

Boltovskoy and Cataldo estimated it as 3 years in Cuenca del Plata, Argentina. Iwasaki and Uryu suggested a longevity of 2 years in the Uji River, Japan, from 4 to 5 years in Korea and over 10 years in central China. It is dioecious and reaches sexual maturity in the first year of its life span.

After spawning and fertilization, the trocophore is the first limnoperns stage. Several stages limnoperns free-swimming planktonic veliger D-larvae about 7 days, between 80 and mm; veliconcha between 90 and mm and pediveliger or umbonate, more than mm.


Then the larvae settle as plantigrade forunei and attach to the substrate as juveniles. These larvae are free-swimming and planktonic and live in the water column. Its eurioic status allows a quick and effective distribution in water bodies. The juveniles differentiate into males and females; with lengths of 5 mm in the spring and 9 mm in the summer, and can reach sexual maturity after 6 mm total length Darrigran et al. Distribution Table Top fogtunei page The distribution in this summary fotunei is based on all the information available.

When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Limnopeena first recorded it in Hong Kong where it had been introduced from China via supplied potable water. The species has been recorded in Taiwan, fouling potable water supply systems Tan et al.

It was first recorded in South America in the s Pastorino et al. There are no governmental controls of the pathways. In South America, L. The species needs hard substrates to attach to with byssal threads.

The results show that characteristics of morphology and isozymes of specimens collected from mainland China were similar to those from Japan rather than to those from Argentina.

These pimnoperna might be explained by one or two alternative scenarios: DNA damage and repair in the haemolymph cells of L. The results suggest L.

This method promises to become an important way to monitor the expansion of L. After external fertilization, planktonic larvae live for several weeks before settling and attaching to a hard substrate. In South America, Darrigran et al.

This study differentiated numerous spawning events five were recordedmany of them of low magnitude. The observed pattern was similar to the one described by Morton Only two major spawnings were observed through the year; one when summer temperature was recorded and the other with spring temperatures.

A small winter spawning was also observed. Santos and Mansur suggested that L. The larval stages feed on bacteria. Associations Associations between L. In Limnoprna America, there are no records of L. It is tolerant to polluted and contaminated waters with low calcium and pH levels.

In the introduced area, enemies include the following species of fishes: Limnopeerna natural dispersal is downstream and dependent fodtunei water currents. Vector Transmission Biotic There is little information about biotic vector transmission. The specimens could be limnlperna and carried in the gut of fishes Belz, birds, etc. Darrigran and Pastorino proposed the non-intentional introduction of L.

Diagnostic features

At that time an increase of trade between Argentina and two countries that L. Until the beginning of the s, macrofouling in the neotropical region occurred only in marine and mixohaline waters. Since the introduction of L. This kind of problem freshwater macrofouling is caused by the appearance of fortuneo or juveniles of L. It impacts the sources of water supply of many water-treatment plants, industrial refrigeration systems, and power stations. Among the usual firtunei involved, the following are the most significant: This new economical and environmental problem for the neotropical regions produces unexpected expenses, for example, due to system shutdowns, the need for chemical or mechanical cleaning, and pipe and filter replacement.


Impact on Habitats The large biomass associated with high densities of L. Several species of native fish consume L. Impact on Biodiversity The impact caused by L. In contrast, several benthic species, limnkperna or absent before the occurrence of L.

Oligochaeta eight speciesAphanoneura one species and Hirudinea eight species. In dortunei, several species of crustaceans and insects never cited at the invaded areas are now present Darrigran et al. Forunei and Impact Factors Top of page Invasiveness Proved invasive outside its native range Highly adaptable to different environments Is a habitat generalist Pioneering in disturbed areas Benefits from human association i. Prevention and Control Top of page Prevention.

Both ratified international events related to bio-invasions topics, such as: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museoeducational programmes are limnlperna out, both about bio-invasion in general and L. Control There is no single safety technique to control macrofouling due to L. There is a set of techniques suitable for each water system, in relation to the structure and the environmental features of the area.

It would be of great value to generate knowledge about several topics, such as: This information is relevant because L. Testing a molecular protocol to monitor the presence of golden mussel larvae Limnoperna fortunei in plankton samples.

Journal of Plankton Research, 29 Boltovskoy D, Cataldo D, Biological Invasions, 8 4: Update and prediction of golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei: Ocurrencia de Limnoperna fortunei Dunker, em Minas Gerais.

X Congresso Brasileiro de Limnologia. Introduction of harmful aquatic organisms bivalves, River Plate. International Maritime Organization, Invasive Freshwater Bivalves of the Neotropical Region. Potential forrtunei of filter feeding invaders on temperate fortnei freshwater environments. Livro Ecologia de Cortunei. Potential impact of filter-feeding invaders on temperate inland freshwater environments.

A potential biocide for control of the golden mussel, Limnoperna fortunei. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 22 2: Darrigran G, Damborenea C, A South American bioinvasion case history: Limnoperna fortunei Dunker,the golden mussel.