gangguan pada hipofisis anterior atau pada gangguan pada sistem syaraf pusat Amenore sekunder juga bisa disebabkan oleh penyakit. Tetapi terbaik. Kehamilan adalah penyebab paling umum dari amenore sekunder. ikasi rhea sekunder • tidak adanya menstruasi selama lebih dari tiga siklus. Amenore Sekunder. Disusun Oleh: Woris Christoper I Dosen Pembimbing dr. Vidia Sari, Kepanitraan Klinik SMF Ilmu Kesehatan Wanita.
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Amenorrhea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age. Outside the reproductive years, there is absence of menses during childhood and after menopause. Amenorrhoea is a symptom with many potential causes. Seounder may be caused by developmental problems, such as the congenital absence of the uterus, failure of the ovary to sekunfer or maintain egg cellsor delay in pubertal development. It is defined as the absence of menses for three months in a woman with previously normal menstruation, or nine months for women with a amenire of oligomenorrhoea.
There are two primary ways to classify amenorrhoea. Types of eekunder are classified as primary or secondary, or based on functional “compartments”. Women who perform considerable amounts of exercise on a regular basis or lose a significant amount of weight are at risk of developing hypothalamic or ‘athletic’ amenorrhoea.
Many women who diet or sekundsr exercise at a high level do not take in enough calories to expend on their exercise sekunser well as to maintain their normal menstrual cycles.
Energy imbalance and weight loss can disrupt menstrual cycles through several hormonal mechanisms. Weight loss can cause elevations in the hormone ghrelin which inhibits the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarial axis. Secondary amenorrhea is caused by low levels of the hormone leptin in females with low body weight.
When a woman is experiencing amenorrhoea, an eating disorderand osteoporosis together, this is called female athlete triad syndrome. The social effects of anenore on a person vary significantly. Amenorrhoea is often associated with anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders, which have their own effects. If secondary amenorrhoea is triggered early in life, for example through excessive exercise or weight loss, menarche may not return later in life. A woman in this situation may be unable to become pregnant, even with the help of drugs.
Long-term amenorrhoea leads to an estrogen deficiency which can bring about menopause at an early age. The hormone estrogen plays a significant role in regulating calcium loss after ages 25— When her ovaries no longer produce estrogen because of amenorrhoea, a woman is more likely to suffer rapid calcium loss, which in turn can lead to osteoporosis.
Some research among amenorrhoeic runners indicates sekuner the loss of menses may be accompanied by a loss of self-esteem. Certain medications, particularly contraceptive medications, can induce amenorrhoea in a healthy woman. The lack of menstruation usually begins shortly after beginning the medication and can take up to a year to resume after stopping a medication. Hormonal contraceptives that contain only progestogen like the oral contraceptive Micronor, and especially higher-dose formulations like the injectable Depo Provera commonly induce this side effect.
Extended cycle use of combined hormonal contraceptives also allow suppression of menstruation. Patients who use and then cease using contraceptives like the combined oral sskunder pill COCP may experience secondary amenorrhoea as a withdrawal symptom.
Studies show that women are most likely to experience amenorrhoea after 1 year of treatment with continuous OCP use. The use of opiates such as heroin on a regular basis has also been known to cause amenorrhoea in longer term users. Anti-psychotic drugs used to treat schizophrenia have been known to cause amenorrhoea as well. New research suggests that adding a dosage of Metformin to an anti-psychotic drug regimen can restore menstruation. Results of the study on Metformin further implicate the regulation of these hormones as a main cause of secondary amenorrhoea.
Breastfeeding is a common cause of secondary amenorrhoea, and often the condition lasts for over six months. Breastfeeding is said to prevent more births in the developing world than any other method of birth control or contraception.
Untreated celiac disease can cause amenorrhea. Aemnore disorders may be the only manifestation of undiagnosed celiac disease and most cases are not recognized. For people with celiac, a gluten-free diet avoids or reduces the risk of developing reproductive disorders.
Amenorrhoea can also be caused by physical deformities. The syndrome develops prenatally early in the development of the female reproductive amenoore.
Secondary amenorrhea is also caused by stress, extreme weight loss, or excessive exercise. Young athletes are particularly vulnerable, although normal menses usually return with healthy body weight. Causes of secondary amenorrhea can also result in primary amenorrhea, especially if present before onset of menarche. Primary amenorrhoea can be diagnosed in female children by age 14 if no secondary sex characteristicssuch as enlarged breasts and body hair, are present.
Gonadal dysgenesis, often associated with Turner’s Syndromeor premature ovarian failure may also be to blame.
Amenorrhea – Wikipedia
If secondary sex characteristics are present, but menstruation is not, primary amenorrhoea can be diagnosed by age A reason for this occurrence may be that a person phenotypically female but genetically male, a situation known as androgen insensitivity syndrome.
In the absence of undescended testes, an MRI can be used to determine whether or not a uterus is present.
If a uterus is present, outflow track obstruction may be to blame for primary amenorrhoea. Sejunder amenorrhea’s most common and most easily diagnosable causes are pregnancythyroid diseaseand hyperprolactinemia.
A pregnancy test is a common first step for diagnosis. A dopamine agonist can often help relieve symptoms. Sekuner subsiding of the causal syndrome is usually enough to restore menses after a few months.
Secondary amenorrhea may also be caused by outflow tract obstruction, often sekunedr to Asherman’s Syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome can cause secondary amenorrhea, although the link between the two is not well understood. Ovarian failure related to early onset menopause can cause secondary amenorrhea, and although the condition can usually be treated, it is not always reversible.
Treatments vary based on the underlying condition. For those who do not plan to have biological children, treatment may be unnecessary if the underlying cause of the amenorrhoea is not threatening to their health.
However, in the case of athletic amenorrhoea, deficiencies in estrogen and leptin often simultaneously result in bone loss, potentially leading to osteoporosis.
Although oral contraceptives can causes menses to return, oral contraceptives should not be the initial treatment sekundwr they can mask the underlying problem and allow other effects of the eating disorder, like osteoporosiscontinue to develop. Recommencement of ovulation suggests a dependency on a whole network of neurotransmitters and hormones, altered in response to the initial triggers of secondary amenorrhoea. To treat drug-induced amenorrhoea, stopping the medication on the advice of a doctor is a usual course of action.
Looking at Hypothalamic amenorrhoea, studies have provided that the administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor SSRI might correct abnormalities of Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhoea FHA related to the condition of stress-related amenorrhoea.
In other words, it regulates the neuronal activity and expression of neuropeptide systems that promote GnRH release. However, SSRI therapy represents a possible hormonal solution to just one hormonal condition of hypothalamic amenorrhoea. Furthermore, because the condition involves the inter workings of many different neurotransmitters, much research is still to be done on presenting hormonal treatment that would counteract the hormonal affects. As for physiological treatments to hypothalamic amenorrhoea, injections of metreleptin r-metHuLeptin have been tested as treatment to oestrogen deficiency resulting from low gonadotropins and other neuroendocrine defects such as low concentrations of thyroid and IGF R-metHuLeptin has appeared effective in restoring defects in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and improving reproductive, thyroid, and IGF hormones, as well as bone formation, thus curing the amenorrhoea and infertility.
However, it has not proved effective in restoring of cortisol and adrenocorticotropin levels, or bone resorption. In preindustrial societies, menarche typically occurred later than in current industrial societies. After menarche, menstruation was suppressed during much of a woman’s reproductive life by either pregnancy or nursing.
Reductions in age of menarche and lower fertility rates mean that modern women menstruate far more often than they did under the conditions prevalent for most of human evolutionary history.
The term is derived from Greek: Derived adjectives are amenorrhoeal and amenorrhoeic. The opposite is the normal menstrual period eumenorrhoea.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Archived from the original on Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility. Archived from the original on 29 January Clinical gynecologic endocrinology and infertility. A Case-Based, Clinical Guide. Archived from the original on 4 January Journal of Applied Physiology. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Dieting to the extreme”. Clinical Social Work Journal. Clinical Reproduction and Fertility.
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management. The American Journal of Psychiatry. Ginecologla y Obstetricia de Mexico. Archived PDF from the original on American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. British Journal of Sports Medicine. Female diseases of the pelvis and genitals N70—N99— Endometriosis of ovary Female infertility Anovulation Poor ovarian reserve Mittelschmerz Oophoritis Ovarian apoplexy Ovarian cyst Corpus luteum cyst Follicular cyst of ovary Theca lutein cyst Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome Ovarian torsion.
Female infertility Fallopian tube obstruction Hematosalpinx Hydrosalpinx Salpingitis. Asherman’s syndrome Dysfunctional uterine bleeding Endometrial hyperplasia Endometrial polyp Endometriosis Endometritis. Female infertility Recurrent miscarriage.
Cervical dysplasia Cervical incompetence Cervical polyp Cervicitis Female infertility Cervical stenosis Nabothian cyst.
Dyspareunia Hypoactive sexual desire disorder Sexual arousal disorder Vaginismus. Vaginal bleeding Postcoital bleeding.